Swarm Control In collaboration with Professor Venanzio Cichella at the University of Iowa, Moshman Research is developing a control framework for autonomously controlling swarms of satellites for future NASA missions. A leader (green) and follower (blue) space vehicles make up a swarm. The leader directs the followers from an arbitrary initial state into a swarm formation. A follower (blue) relative to a leader (green) spacecraft in a geocentric equatorial frame. The state vector and orbital elements are shown. Relative position (top) and velocity (bottom) of the leader and a follower spacecraft during a rendezvous maneuver. The discontinuities in the relative velocity at the initial and final moments illustrate the optimal, bang-bang type control.